Category Archives: Electronic Communications Act 2000

Electronic Communication Act 2000 and the Paperless Office (General Summary)

The general thoughts are that the E.C.A act has had an overall impact on the development of the paperless system and the paperless office , as this was it’s intension to do so, not in the last two areas but certainly to help and to make a more secure system, that we can all benefit form.

This only can have a rebound effect to the paperless systems and Paperless office systems. We are seeing at the moment that securing file and documents within the business environment is slowly becoming second nature to any small or large business, not only that due to the technology which is available this is slowly becoming a cheaper option.

You will read articles that the act was just a small stepping stone, that has opened a very large wound, and you will be correct to assume that, the overall thought of encrypting or making things more secure and also to make a measurable impact of the various ways of making this happen within the ever increasing technology race.

One of most measurable area is that of recognition of the electronic signature that could be used in the court of law, id I do believe is a big step in the right directs, we must remember that the act is 10 years old, so a lot will have happened since then.

Will the main thought process of Cryptography make any major radical changes to what we use today, I think to the every day person who users the internet of any paperless system, this will not have a major change it will help to simonize the process of security, but behind close doors things have changed and I believe they will for many years to come.

We must remember that there are many examples of cryptography; security of information is never one hundred percent perfect. Even though more complex encryption methods are always being created, sophisticated hackers can learn to adapt and find a way to crack these systems and in all cases we just need to try and be one step ahead of the game.

Just to confirm that the difference between cryptography and encryption terms are Cryptography is the study and methods used for the security of messages and other important information, while encryption is the specific techniques that make these methods possible.

What are the differences of Digital Signatures and Email Encryption methods?

Encryption use asymmetrical keys, the goal of a digital signature and that of email encryption are entirely different. A digital signature is used to verify that a particular electronic document was created by a particular individual and has not been altered in the transmission process. The process is used to authenticate the author and the contents of the document beyond a shadow of doubt.

Email encryption, on the other hand, is used to maintain the privacy of the contents of an email. Generally, information that should not be privy to everyone is subject to email encryption.

When implementing digital signatures, the public key is used for decryption while its corresponding private key is used for encryption. The process for email encryption is exactly the opposite.

Email encryption and digital signatures are certainly not mutually exclusive, even though they have differences. There are occasions where establishing the identity of an e-mail’s author is equally as important as maintaining the security of its contents.

This is a scenario where both technologies would be used in conjunction with each other.

I think that a general understanding of this act plays a major role when looking at the concept of the paperless system and in years to come will certainly assist the general development of a paperless system.

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ECA 2000 parts 7 to 10

Part II Facilitation of electronic commerce, data storage

Section 7

Electronic signatures and related certificates

This section provides for the admissibility of electronic signatures and related certificates in legal proceedings

It will be for the court to decide in a particular case whether an electronic signature has been correctly used and what weight it should be given (e.g. in relation to the authentication or integrity of a message) against other evidence. Some businesses have contracted with each other about how they are to treat each other’s electronic communications.

Subsection (1) allows an electronic signature, or its certification, to be admissible as evidence in respect of any question regarding the authenticity or integrity of an electronic communication or data. Authenticity and integrity are both defined in section

15(2):References to the authenticity of any communication or data are references to any one or more of the following.

Whether the communication or data comes from a particular person or other source;

Whether it is accurately timed and dated;

 Whether it is intended to have legal effect.

References to the integrity of any communication or data are references to whether there has been any tampering with or other modification of the communication or data.

Subsection (2) defines an electronic signature for the purposes of the section.

Subsection (3) explains what is meant by certified in this context.

Summary

I think one of the main points to this section is that the act has certainly helped the development of the paperless system. To a certain degree the electronic signature has been accepted and been allowed to enter with certain ease into the technology race within the paperless system.

The Electronic signature can be accepted as evidence in a court of law but as the above paragraph indicates that it is subject to its authenticity and integrity, but you could state that about if a signature as written with a pen.

Section 8 

Power to modify legislation

This power is designed to remove restrictions arising from other legislation which prevent the use of electronic communications or storage in place of paper, and to enable the use of electronic communications or storage of electronic data to be regulated where it is already allowed. Its potential application in such cases means that it is narrower in scope than section 7, which applies wherever electronic signatures are used; including those cases where there is no legislative impediment to the electronic option. The power can be used selectively to offer the electronic alternative to those who want it.

There are a large number of provisions in statutes on many different topics, which require the use of paper or which might be interpreted to require this. Many of these cases involve communication with Government Departments by businesses or individuals – including submitting information or applying for licenses or permits. Other cases concern communications between businesses and individuals, where there is a statutory requirement that the communication should be on paper. The power can be used in any of these cases, and is not limited to the provision of written information:

  • document is defined in section 15(1) to include a map, plan, design, drawing, picture or other image;
  • Communication is defined in section 15(1) to include a communication comprising sounds or images or both and a communication effecting a payment.

Some examples of the way in which the power could be used relate to the Companies Act 1985. On 5 March 1999 the DTI consulted about whether the Act should be changed to enable companies to use electronic means to deliver company communications, to receive shareholder proxy and voting instructions and to incorporate. The consultation letter “Electronic Communication: Change To The Companies Act 1985” is available from DTI’s Company Law and Investigations Directorate, telephone 020 7215 0409. A draft order, which the Government proposes to make under this power, was published for consultation in February 2000 and is available by phoning the same telephone number and at http://www.dti.gov.uk/cld.condocs.htm

The Government will also ensure a co-ordinate approach among Departments and issue guidance for their use. This accords with the observation in the Performance and Innovation Unit report e-commerce@its.best.uk (Para 10.45) that “A significant degree of co-ordination will be needed to ensure that measures to acknowledge legal equivalence of written and digital signatures marches in step between departments”. This role has been assigned to the Central IT Unit in the Cabinet Office, which provides the policy lead for developing Information Age Government under the Modernizing Government agenda. The Cabinet Office is developing guidelines to ensure that Departments follow a consistent approach.

There are, however, many communications where paper is not currently required by law – for example the vast majority of contracts fall into this category. People will remain free to undertake transactions of this kind using whatever form of communication they wish.

Subsection (1) gives the appropriate Minister the power to modify, by order made by statutory instrument, the provisions of any enactment or subordinate legislation, or instruments made under such legislation, for which he is responsible. He may authorize or facilitate the use of electronic communications or electronic storage (instead of other methods of communication or storage) for any purpose mentioned in subsection (2).

This power is limited by subsection (3) which places a duty on the Minister not to make such an order unless he considers that authorizing the option of electronic communication or storage will not result in arrangements for record-keeping that are less satisfactory than before. It is also limited by subsection (6).

  • enactment is defined in section 15 and includes future legislation;
  • record is defined in section 15 to include an electronic record;
  • The appropriate Minister is defined in section 9 (1).

Subsection (2) describes the purposes for which modification by an order may be made.

Subsections (4) and (5) specify the types of provision about electronic communications or the use of electronic storage that may be made in an order under this section.

Subsection (6) provides that an order under this section cannot require the use of electronic communications or electronic storage. However, when someone has previously chosen the electronic option, the variation or withdrawal of such a choice may be subject to a period of notice specified in the order.

Subsection (7) provides that this section does not apply to matters under the care and management of the Commissioners of Inland Revenue or the Commissioners of Customs and Excise. Such matters are already covered in sections 132 and 133 of the Finance Act 1999

Summary

This section really only covers The power can be used selectively to offer the electronic alternative to those who want it and also states and mentions that if a person or persons still want to use a more traditional method this will no way be used against them.

Section 9

Supplemental provision about section 8 orders

This section says who may make section 8 orders, and sets out supplementary provisions relating to such orders; it contains standard provisions commonly accorded to powers to make subordinate legislation, such as an ability to make supplementary provision.

Subsections (3) and (4) provide that the regulations made under section 8 will be subject to a choice of either affirmative or negative resolution procedure in both Houses of Parliament. The Government intends to use affirmative resolution at least for the first order, so that the general principles can be debated.

Subsection (7) provides for the power to be exercised by the Scottish Ministers, with the consent of the Secretary of State, in relation to Scottish devolved matters. Scottish legislation is brought within the ambit of the power by virtue of the definitions of enactment and subordinate legislation in section 15.

Summary

This section covers the areas of section 8 which is a compulsory acquisition order. It is a very unassuming piece of paper without letterhead or a stamp and is signed by the acquiring authority persons or person.

Section 10

Modifications in relation to Welsh matters

This section provides for the power in section 8 to be exercised by the National Assembly for Wales, to the extent set out in subsections (3) and (4). That power is to be exercisable with the consent of the Secretary of State.

Part III Miscellaneous and supplemental

Section 11:  Modification of licenses by the Director

 Part III: License Modification Procedure

Section 12:  Appeals against modifications of licenses

Section 14

Prohibition on key escrow requirements

This section limits the powers given by this Act to any Minister of the Crown, the Scottish Ministers, the National Assembly for Wales, or any person appointed under section 3, such that these powers may not impose requirements on a person to deposit a key for electronic data with any other person. Subsection (2) makes clear that a key may be required to be deposited with a person to whom the communication is sent and that alternative arrangements to key-storage may be required to prevent the loss of data or the ability to decode it. Subsection (3) defines a key for the purposes of this section, making use of the definition of being put into an intelligible form given in section 15 (3).

Section 15:  General interpretation

This section provides for the interpretation of various terms used throughout the Act.

Subsection (1) inter alia defines

Electronic communication to mean a communication transmitted (whether from one person to another, from one device to another or from a person to a device or vice versa) by means of a telecommunication system (within the meaning of the Telecommunications Act 1984), or by other means but while in an electronic form.

Section 4(1) of the Telecommunications Act 1984 says

In this Act telecommunication system means a system for the conveyance, through the agency of electric, magnetic, electro-magnetic, electro-chemical or electro-mechanical energy of-

(a)

speech, music and other sounds;

(b)

visual images;

(c)

signals serving for the impartation (whether as between persons and persons, things and things or persons and things) of any matter otherwise than in the form of sounds or visual images; or

(d)

signals serving for the actuation or control of machinery or apparatus.

subordinate legislation as having the same meaning as in the Interpretation Act 1978, and also including corresponding secondary legislation made under Acts of the Scottish Parliament and certain statutory rules in Northern Ireland.

Section 21(1) of the Interpretation Act 1978 provides that subordinate legislation means Orders in Council, orders, rules, regulations, schemes, warrants, byelaws and other instruments made or to be made under any Act.


ECA 2000 Parts 1 to 6

Section 1: Register of approved providers

This section places a duty on the Secretary of State to establish and maintain a register of approved providers of cryptography support services, and specifies what information is to be contained in the register. The section also requires the Secretary of State to make arrangements for the public to have access to the register and for any changes to the information in the register to be publicized.

Cryptography support services are defined in section 6.

The main purpose of the register is to ensure that providers on the register have been independently assessed against particular standards of quality, in order to encourage the use of their services, and hence the development of electronic commerce and electronic communication with Government.

Where two people are communicating electronically, it may be necessary for one person to rely on the services provided to the other: for example, where the first person receives a communication which purports to have been signed electronically by the other.

Definition of electronic signature is given in section 7(2).

The register is voluntary: no provider is obliged to apply for approval and a provider who is not on the register is at liberty to provide cryptography services

 Summary

This section is very straight forward it informs us that a registration has to provided to the extent that all persons or person who will provide assistance to the development of the cryptography support services area and associated

Section 2: Arrangements for the grant of approvals

This section places a duty on the Secretary of State to ensure that there are arrangements in force for granting approval, handling complaints and disputes and modifying or withdrawing approval.

Places a duty on the Secretary of State to ensure that there are arrangements for granting approvals for any person providing or proposing to provide, cryptography support services in the United Kingdom.

The provision of cryptography support services in the United Kingdom is described in subsection.

Says what the Secretary of State must be satisfied about in order to grant an approval. The Secretary of State is given the power to set requirements (e.g. relating to the technology provided, to the person himself and his background and experience, and the way he provides the technology to the public) by regulation, and also to impose conditions on the approval.

The Secretary of State must also be satisfied that the person is fit and proper to be approved. Relevant factors include any known contraventions of provisions of this legislation, and convictions for offences involving fraud or dishonesty, or engaging in discriminatory practices, or engaging in deceitful, oppressive, unfair or improper business practices.

Requirement for compliance with these requirements by reference to the opinion of a person specified, either in the regulations or chosen in a manner set out in the regulations.

The arrangements for approvals, outlined above, envisage providers requesting approval for one or a number of different cryptography support services. The granting of such an approval would depend on the applicant meeting the conditions specified in the relevant regulations.

Summary

In general this section confirms to section 1 that a person and persons will be able to provide the necessary information and also the persons will be fit for purpose and all transaction will be performed in the correct business.

Section 3:  Delegation of approval functions

This section enables the Secretary of State to delegate the approvals functions set out in sections 1 and 2 to any person. Subsection (4) provides that where the functions are delegated to a statutory body or office holder, the statutes relating to their original functions shall be regarded as including the new functions so delegated. Subsection (5) enables the Secretary of State to modify enactments by order, and subsection (6) provides that the order required to do this will be subject to affirmative resolution procedure in both Houses of Parliament.

Summary

This section is very straight forward it informs us that state has the ability to delegate the items mentioned in sections 1 and 2.

Section 4:  Restrictions on disclosure of information

This section protects certain information obtained under Part I, sets out the purposes for which it may be disclosed (e.g. in order to carry out the approvals functions, for a criminal investigation or for those civil proceedings specified in subsection (2)(e)) and makes improper disclosure a criminal offence. It safeguards individual privacy and commercially confidential information, except where disclosure is justifiable.

There is no restriction on who may make the disclosure or to whom it may be made, provided that the purpose is proper.

Summary

This section has informed us that disclosure of information will be restricted subjected to certain conditions.

Section 5:  Regulations under Part I

This section makes further provision relating to the regulations the Secretary of State may make under Part I and contains standard provisions commonly accorded to powers to make subordinate legislation, such as an ability to make supplementary provision.

The regulations will be subject to affirmative resolution procedure in both Houses of Parliament the first time the Secretary of State exercises his powers to make regulations under this Part. They will subsequently be subject to negative resolution procedure in both Houses of Parliament.

  • prescribed is defined in this Part as meaning prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State, or determined in such a manner as may be provided for in any such regulations.

Summary

This section indicates that it can make subordinate legislation, such as an ability to make supplementary provision to Part 1 if required.

Section 6:  Provision of cryptography support services

The cryptography support services that may be approved under the arrangements described above are defined to include those relating to: confidentiality, i.e. securing that such electronic communications or data can be accessed, or can be put into an intelligible form (defined in section 15(3)), only by certain persons; securing that the authenticity or integrity (both defined in section 15(2) of electronic communications or data is capable of being ascertained, i.e. relating to an electronic signature.

Subsection (2) makes it clear that the approval scheme for cryptography support services includes only those services that primarily involve a continuing relationship between the supplier of the service and the customer. The scheme does not cover the supply of an item (whether software or hardware) unless such a supply is integral to the provision of the service itself.

Cryptography support services, falling within the scope of this section, would include registration and certification in relation to certificates, time-stamping of certificates or documents, key generation and management, key-storage and providing directories of certificates.

Summary

This section provides for the interpretation of various terms used in Part I of the Act.


Cryptography

When it becomes necessary to transmit information from one point to another, it’s important to protect the information while it’s in transit.

Cryptography presents various methods for taking legible, readable data, and transforming it into unreadable data for the purpose of secure transmission, and then using a key to transform it back into readable data when it reaches its destination.

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a common encryption protocol used in e-commerce. When you make a purchase over the Internet, this is the technology the merchant uses to make sure you can safely transmit your credit card information. Using this protocol, your computer and the online merchant’s computer agree to create a type of private “tunnel” through the public Internet. This process is called the “handshake.” When you see a URL in your Web browser that starts with “https” instead of “http”, it is a secure connection that is using SSL.

Some methods of cryptography used a “secret key” to allow the recipient to decrypt the message. The most common secret key cryptosystem is the Data Encryption Standard (DES), or the more secure Triple-DES which encrypts the data three times

More common are systems that use a public key cryptography system, such as the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol. This system uses two keys that work together; a public one, which anyone can access, and a private one, which is kept secret by the party receiving the data.

When you want to send a secure message to someone, you encrypt that message using the recipient’s public key. But once encrypted, the recipient must use his or her private key to decrypt it.

The goal of cryptography extends beyond merely making data unreadable, it also extends into user authentication that is, providing the recipient with assurance that the encrypted message originated from a trusted source.

Hash functions are sometimes used in conjunction with private key or public key cryptography. This is a type of one-way encryption, which applies an algorithm to a message, such that the message itself cannot be recovered. Unlike key-based cryptography, the goal of the hash function is not to encrypt data for later decryption, but to create a sort of digital fingerprint of a message.

The value derived from applying the hash function can be re-calculated at the receiving end, to ensure that the message has not been tampered with during transit. Then, key-based cryptography is applied to decipher the message.

Summary

The introduction covers one of the main parts; it is self explanatory notes that explain what Cryptography is all about. In real terms the theory is very simple to use but in practice very difficult to carry out and perform.

There is some progress and a basic “implementation” is been used today but total Cryptography is a long way from completion.


Electronic Communications Act 2000 Introduction

 

 

Background

The Government’s policy is to facilitate electronic commerce. It has also set itself targets for making Government services available electronically: all schools and libraries to be connected to the internet by 2002, with 100% of all government services to be deliverable online by 2005.

The Government has also set a target for 90% of its routine procurement of goods to be done electronically by 2001.

Cryptography and electronic signatures are important for electronic transactions.

Cryptography is the science of codes and ciphers. This has long been applied by banks and government and is an essential tool for electronic commerce. It can also cover the areas of the basis of an electronic signature.

Encryption is the process of turning normal text into a series of letters and/or numbers which can only be deciphered by someone who has the correct password or key. Encryption is used to prevent others reading confidential, private or commercial data (for example an e-mail sent over the internet or a file stored on floppy disk).

An electronic signature is something associated with an electronic document that performs similar functions to a manual signature. It can be used to give the recipient confirmation that the communication comes from whom it purports to come from (“authenticity”). Another important use of electronic signatures is establishing that the communication has not been tampered with (“integrity”).

Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography that uses two distinct, but related, keys (known as a key pair): one key for “locking” a document, and a separate key for “unlocking” it. These keys are both large numbers with special mathematical properties.

Public key cryptography can be used to provide an electronic signature: the private key (which is only known to its owner) is used as the “lock” to transform the data, by scrambling the information contained in it.

The transformed data is the electronic signature, which can be verified by “unlocking” it with the public key of the person who signed it. Anyone with access to the public key can check the signature, so verifying that it was signed by someone with access to the private key and also verifying that the content of the document had not been changed.

Public key cryptography can also be used to keep a communication secret: in this case the keys are used the other way round. The person sending the message would use the public key of the intended recipient to “lock” the message. Now only the corresponding private key can be used to “unlock” the message. This is what the intended recipient would use to read it. A third party would not be able to read the message without access to the intended recipient’s private key.

Various organizations provide cryptography services, which include certifying the public key of an individual, managing encryption keys and time stamping electronic signatures. There is a need for the public to be able to have confidence that these services are secure and not open to fraud; and for people to be free from unnecessary restrictions in their use of new technology.

The main purpose of the Act is to help build confidence in electronic commerce and the technology underlying it by providing for:

  • an approvals scheme for businesses and other organizations providing cryptography services, such as electronic signature services and confidentiality services;
  • the legal recognition of electronic signatures and the process under which they are verified, generated or communicated;
  • The removal of obstacles in other legislation to the use of electronic communication and storage in place of paper.

The Act also contains provisions to update procedures for modifying telecommunications licenses.

 Summary

The above is a basic summary of what the act is about and the main purpose for the act.


Civil Evidence Act 1995 Overview

1995 CHAPTER 38

To have a good understanding about Document Managements System it can be good practice to have a basic understanding on where the law and documents requirements may be mentioned or even to what degree documents have to be controlled under certain conditions or in what areas documents may be required.

I have no training in law as I am educated within an engineering background but this basic understanding does help to understand to which areas this may be used or even mentioned and it certainly does help you if you want to understand this concept in more detail.

What is the Civil Evidence Act 1995

This is an Act to provide for the admissibility of hearsay evidence, the proof of certain documentary evidence and the admissibility and proof of official actuarial tables in civil proceedings; and for connected purposes.

The Civil Evidence Act 1995 has introduced a system whereby all documents and copy documents, including computer records, can be admitted as evidence in civil proceedings.

The Act requires particular attention to be paid to the setting up of authorization procedures and the ability to demonstrate to the courts that these procedures are being followed. It may need to be shown by evidence in court that a particular computer was being used regularly, was supplied regularly with information of the sort from which the document in question was derived and was operating properly.

The information below indicates to which area documents may be mentioned within the act, this is a guide line only and does help to understand this act in more detail.

8 Proof of statements contained in documents

(1) Where a statement contained in a document is admissible as evidence in civil proceedings, it may be proved—

(a) By the production of that document, or

(b) Whether or not that document is still in existence, by the production of a copy of that document or of the material part of it,

Authenticated in such manner as the court may approve

(2) It is immaterial for this purpose how many removes there are between a copy and the original.

9 Proof of records of business or public authority

(1) A document which is shown to form part of the records of a business or public authority may be received in evidence in civil proceedings without further proof.

(2) A document shall be taken to form part of the records of a business or public authority if there is produced to the court a certificate to that effect signed by an officer of the business or authority to which the records belong.

For this purpose—

(a) a document purporting to be a certificate signed by an officer of a business or public authority shall be deemed to have been duly given by such an officer and signed by him; and

(b) a certificate shall be treated as signed by a person if it purports to bear a facsimile of his signature.

(3) The absence of an entry in the records of a business or public authority may be proved in civil proceedings by affidavit of an officer of the business or authority to which the records belong.

(4) In this section—

  • “records” means records in whatever form;
  • “business” includes any activity regularly carried on over a period of time, whether for profit or not, by any body (whether corporate or not) or by an individual;
  • “officer” includes any person occupying a responsible position in relation to the relevant activities of the business or public authority or in relation to its records; and
  • “public authority” includes any public or statutory undertaking, any government department and any person holding office under Her Majesty.

(5) The court may, having regard to the circumstances of the case, direct that all or any of the above provisions of this section do not apply in relation to a particular document or record, or description of documents or records.

10 Admissibility and proof of Ogden Tables

(1) The actuarial tables (together with explanatory notes) for use in personal injury and fatal accident cases issued from time to time by the Government Actuary’s Department are admissible in evidence for the purpose of assessing, in an action for personal injury, the sum to be awarded as general damages for future pecuniary loss.

(2) They may be proved by the production of a copy published by Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

(3) For the purposes of this section—

(a) “personal injury” includes any disease and any impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; and

(b) “action for personal injury” includes an action brought by virtue of the [1934 c. 41.] Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934 or the [1976 c. 30.] Fatal Accidents Act 1976.

Savings

(1) Nothing in this Act affects the exclusion of evidence on grounds other than that it is hearsay.

This applies whether the evidence falls to be excluded in pursuance of any enactment or rule of law, for failure to comply with rules of court or an order of the court, or otherwise.

(2) Nothing in this Act affects the proof of documents by means other than those specified in section 8 or 9.

(3) Nothing in this Act affects the operation of the following enactments—

(a) section 2 of the [1868 c. 37.] Documentary Evidence Act 1868 (mode of proving certain official documents);

(b) section 2 of the [1882 c. 9.] Documentary Evidence Act 1882 (documents printed under the superintendence of Stationery Office);

(c) section 1 of the [1907 c. 16.] Evidence (Colonial Statutes) Act 1907 (proof of statutes of certain legislatures);

(d) section 1 of the [1933 c. 4.] Evidence (Foreign, Dominion and Colonial Documents) Act 1933 (proof and effect of registers and official certificates of certain countries);

(e) section 5 of the [1963 c. 27.] Oaths and Evidence (Overseas Authorities and Countries) Act 1963 (provision in respect of public registers of other countries).

 Gaming Act 1968 (c. 65)

4 In section 43 of the Gaming Act 1968 (powers of inspectors and related provisions), for subsection (11) substitute—

“(11) In this section—

“document” means anything in which information of any description is recorded, and

“copy”, in relation to a document, means anything onto which information recorded in the document has been copied, by whatever means and whether directly or indirectly.”.

The above statement is also in the following sections

  • Vehicle and Driving Licences Act 1969 (c. 27)
  • Taxes Management Act 1970 (c. 9)
  • Civil Evidence Act 1972 (c. 30)
  • International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs Act 1976 (c. 58)
  • Criminal Justice Act 1988 (c. 33)
  • Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988 (c. 53)
  • Vehicle Excise and Registration Act 1994 (c. 22)

The above information may give you a good idea to the areas where documents are mentioned within this act, and it also provides interesting reading, this article is for reference only, and if you require and further information or any particular information relating to this act I would recommend that you connect your lawer.

To see the act represented in full click on the following link

 http://www.isurv.com/site/scripts/download_info.aspx?categoryID=406&downloadID=746